The Bromo Tengger Semeru national park lies in east Java and includes the Bromo Tengger caldera. The massive Tengger caldera extends over 9x10 km and was formed when the superior part of a 4500m high stratovolcano collapsed a quarter of a million years ago. Inside the caldera are three volcanic cones, rising on a sea of black volcanic sand: Mt Batok (2470m), Mt Bromo (2392m) and Mount Kursi (2581m). South of the caldera lies Mount Semeru, at 3676m Java's highest peak and still an active volcano. The caldera is best viewed from Mt. Penanjakan (2770m) at dawn, when the rising sun creates a spectacular scenery.
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