There are about 400 mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. The ones in the Qobustan national park are located 15 km south of the museum. These mud volcanoes are conical structures ouf of which mud flows out due to a geological process by which water mixes with earth and other minerals at a certain depth and is forced upwards by subterranean pressure. Bubbles of gas (typically methane) emerge and explode, releasing the gas to the atmosphere.
Despite the name, the temperature of the mud in the mud volcanoes is relatively low (in the 2°C to 100°C range). At the site in the Qobustan national park there are a few dozen mud volcanoes, most between 1m and 3m high, not all of them emitting mud.
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